Critique and Humanism journal | 51 | 2/ 2019 | Modality and Indexicality – I part

issue editor: Darin Tenev, vol. 51, 2/2019, p. 210, ISSN:0861-1718

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Contents

 

* The issue is only available in English.

EDITORIAL

 

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Author: Darin Tenev

On the Concepts of Necessary Condition and Sufficient Condition

The subject of the text is the logical analysis of the concepts of necessary condition and sufficient condition. Three explanations of what they mean are considered. The first, the material implication account, has the absurd consequence that if two sentences are true, the states of affairs they express are necessary and sufficient conditions for one another. In addition, it contradicts the way the concepts are used in mathematics, where a necessary or sufficient condition is given through a predicate rather than a sentence. The second explanation, the strict implication account, does not have the first of the above two deficiencies but has the key disadvantage that it is not applicable to the extensional language of mathematics, where the two expressions are most commonly used. The article defends an explanation through a formal implication. Unlike the other two, the formal implication account corresponds to mathematical usage. Moreover, when the necessary or sufficient condition is given through a sentence instead of a predicate, the account treats it as an intentional (modal) expression, which avoids the absurd consequence of the first account.

 

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Author: Evgeni Latinov

Evgeni Latinov is Associate Professor at the Department “Logic, Ethics and Aesthetics” of Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski” since 2002. He completed his undergraduate studies and his Ph. D. at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. In 2014 he has been conferred the academic degree Dr. habil. of philosophy. His research interests lie in the area of logic.

Paul Grice and the Communication Mechanism

In this paper we present Paul Grice’s most influential insights on language. According to him, the analysis of linguistic meaning should be based on the speaker’s intention to produce an effect in their audience. And the process of understanding is analyzed by Grice as consisting (generally) of the following components: i) X intends to produce an effect in Y by having Y recognize this intention; ii) Y recognizes the intention of X and thus the intended effect is produced. These intentions lie at the core of all types of meaning distinguished by Grice: from the timeless meaning of an expression in a language to the specific utterer’s meaning on a given occasion. Since the conventional meaning of a sentence can differ from the utterer’s meaning on a given occasion, the notion of implicature is introduced as a way of explaining the connection between the two. The specific utterer’s meaning on a given occasion is, for Grice, the most fundamental form of meaning, having a logical priority over the timeless meaning. From this point of view, pragmatics is the framework in which natural language semantics should be examined in order to be better understood.

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Author: Anna N. Beshkova, Velislava Todorova

Anna N. Beshkova, PhD is Associated Professor at the Department of Logic, Ethics and Aesthetics, Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. Her research interests are in the field of logic, philosophical logic and analytical philosophy.

Velislava Todorova is Assistant Professor at the Department of Logic, Ethics and Aesthetics, Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. Her re- search interests are in the field of logic and philosophy of language.

Promising the Possible

The present text proposes a new way to tackle the metaphysics of modality, which is based on the concept of “actualized possibility”. It is organized as follows: (§1) scrutinizes the traditional reductive approaches to the concept of possibility; (§2) proposes reasons to accept the thesis that the possibility-talk is correlative to the discourse about causes and reasons; (§3) examines the conceptual apparatus of promise theory; (§4) utilizes this apparatus in order to explicate twelve different “agent modalities”; (§5) discusses the connection between these agent modalities and the classical “system” modalities. The thesis that the text aims to substantiate is that the agent modalities (which relate possibilities to capabilities) are basic and ontologically charged.

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Author: Rosen Lutskanov

Rosen Lutskanov is Associate Professor at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Science. He has published two books: “The Incompleteness Phenomenon” (“East-West Publishing House”, 2008) and “The Faces of Proteus” (“East-West Publishing House”, 2013), He is the vice-president of the Bulgarian Society for Analytic Philosophy. Currently he is scientific editor and translator at “East-West Publishing House”. He has read lectures on logic, critical thinking, conceptual foundations of artificial intelligence and metaphysics at Sofia University, New Bulgarian University, and the University of Plovdiv.

The Indexical Analysis of Actuality and Modal Tensing

The paper discusses the modal-tensed response to van Inwagen’s objection against Lewis’s indexical theory of actuality. Yagisawa’s proposal is shown to fail in its intentions mainly on account of the inherent problems of modal dimensionalism in general that make the response either argumentatively irrelevant or question-begging.

 

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Author: Blagovest S. Mollov

Blagovest S. Mollov, Dr. Habil. is a Professor at the Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University “St. Kliment of Ochrid”. His published books include Formal Approaches to Alethic Modality (2013); The „New“ British Intellectual History (2016); The Historiographical Turn of Analytic Philosophy (2017); and Semanticizing: Studies in Analytic Meta-metaphysics (2018).

Anselm and Actuality

This text is republished in fragments for educational purposes. Translation into Bulgarian from: David Lewis, Philosophical papers, vol. I, Oxford University Press (1983), pp. 10 – 26.

 

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Author: David Lewis

Donald Davidson: Truth and Demonstratives

The paper reconstructs the early attempts of Donald Davidson to design a formal theory of truth – and, hence, a formal semantics for the ordinary languages. Following his failures to realize this task step by step the paper deconstructs the very task. If truth is to be understood as a formal “relation between sentences, speakers, and dates” as Davidson initially suggests then the demonstratives (all the language devices pointing out contextual circumstances and times) should be treated as “logical constants”. But such a formal treatment – in the course of the attempts to be found – appears to be mission impossible. Moreover, nearly in the same time Davidson finds that the “saying that” and the “quotation” have explicitly demonstrative character. But “saying that” and “quotation” are integral parts of truth-saying: the quotation and disquotation are even at the core of the Tarski’s formalized T-equivalence. Taking into account this discovery as well as Davidson’s misfortunate attempts to formalize the demonstratives we can infer: not a formal one but some explicitly demonstrative theory of truth should be developed from here. This is the direction sketched out not by Davidson but by the author in the end of the paper.

 

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Author: Dimitar Vatsov

Dimitar Vatsov, PhD, is Professor of Philosophy at New Bulgarian University, Sofia. He is Editor-in-Chief of Critique & Humanism. He is the author of the followingbooks (in Bulgarian): This is True! (Sofia: NBU, 2016); Essays on Power and Truth (Sofia: NBU, 2009); Freedom and Recognition: The Interactive Sources of Identity (Sofia: NBU, 2006); Ontology of Affirmation: Nietzsche as a Task (Sofia: East-West Publishers, 2003). He has also published numerous papers in English, Italian, Russian, French, Polish and Spanish. His research interests are in the fields of political philosophy and philosophy of language.

Incorporation and Localization. Possibilities for a Differential Phenomenology Stemming from Edmund Husserl

The article associates Husserl’s analytics of the living body (Leiblichkeit) and the division of the body into organic and physical body (Leib-Körper) in the Life-World, with the problem of the so-called “non-genuine localization” of experience (a problem that can be seen as inheriting the problem of indexicality from the time of Logical Investigation). At stake is not so much the reconstruction of Husserl’s intensive work on this topic throughout the 1920s and the 1930s as the outlining of the field of a differential phenomenology of incorporatedness, inspired by this heritage. The bodily dimension is conceived here as a process – as being flesh (leiben – an analogue of living itself, leben) that creates its own forms of spatiality, temporality, and living-with. Different configurations of incorporatedness stem from here, which can be analyzed as bodily modalizations since they concern the alterability of the being-so-and-so on the level of kinesthesis; the bodily modalizations are precisely kinesthetic, and the privileged modus is that of the “absolute here” of the body of experience. In the first section I present a case of everyday life bodily dissociation and I analyze the kinesthetic modality of “as if I’m there.” In the second section I offer an outline of the structure of the originary differential field in which the poles of kinesthetic habitualization and of reified corporality are formed. In the third section I discuss Husserl’s ideas regarding the doubling of space into physical and kinesthetical as well as the constitution of the so-called phantom body. In the fourth section I reinterpret Husserl’s conception of the incorporated ego through the ego’s division into a coenaesthetic and a habitual ego. Just like the Leib-Körper, the incorporated ego is constantly faced with the possibility her constitutive non-coincidence to be fractalized and turn into a partial or complete dissociation.

 

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Author: Svetlana Sabeva

Svetlana Sabeva is Associate Professor of History of Sociology at the Sociology and Human Sciences Department at “Paisiy Hilendarski” University of Plovdiv. She is also a member of the Institute for Critical Social Studies and of the Institute for Critical Theory of Supermodernity. Her books include Introduction to the Sociology of Publicity. Thinking with Hannah Arendt (2002) and Refracted Sociality (2010).

Modalisation of Modalities, Modal and Transmodal Transitions, Reindexicalisations

By this text I seek an experimental goal – a comparative reading of Françoise Dolto’s book „The Unconscious Body Image“ and Darin Tenev’s article „Modalities, Modalisations, Modal Transitions“ and, on this basis, seeking an adequate commensurability between different disciplinary fields of both texts. Such a comparative reading presupposes the hypothesis that socio- and psychoanalytic concepts, theses and arguments have a chance to encounter in the „no-man’s land“ of the body as openness, as intensity and inclining of forces, as immanent modalisation without substance, where modalisation of modalities acquires the affective power of transmodalities and their role in modal and transmodal transitions. Re-indexicalisation relies on the immanent dynamism of the transcendental as a place-giving opening of space.

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Author: Kristiyan Enchev

Kristiyan Enchev is Assotiate Professor of Philosophy at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. He has interests in transcendental metaphysics, hermeneutics, ontology, theory of literature, and semiotics. Author of two monographs and articles and studies in Bulgarian and foreign еditions.

Speech and Deeds in Solon: Context and Performativity

The paper presents some evidences about the “speech and deeds” of the famous Athenian wiseman, legislator and poet from the Archaic age, Solon. The performative situations in question, mainly according Plutarch’s “Live of Solon”, are interpreted also in the terms of the modern analytical philosophy in order both to deepen and do reformulate methodically our understanding of the specificity of the preliminary oral Archaic culture and of the forms and dimensions of the successful communication between citizens and ruling subjects. Discussed are episodes with theatrically setting in state of emergency, but also other, rejecting the playful substitution of roles in the real theatre performance; examples of political anger and weakness… However, figures like Solon are as a rule described as speaking and acting in search for the proper recipients and for the truth to the attainable for a human being degree.

 

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Author: Nevena Panova

Nevena Panova, PhD, is Associate Professor of Ancient Greek literature at the Department of Classical Studies at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. Main scholarly interests: development of genres in Ancient Greek literature; philosophical prose (Plato); orality and literacy; reception of Ancient literature in Bulgaria. N.Panova is the author of The Platonic dialogue. Situations and Elements of Communication (2005) and of Mimeopolis. On Plato’s Political and Literary Theory of Imitation (2012) and translator of Plato’s “Laws” (Books I-IV, VI, VII, 2006) and of some works of Plutarch and Aelian. She also holds Master degree in Philosophy from New Bulgarian University (2019).

The Populist Condition: Conceptual Remarks

In the last 15-20 years “populism” has become a highly popular characteristic in the public discourse. In most cases it carries negative value connotations and, as of today, is used for practically all kinds of behaviors in politics. Even accusations of being a populist become subject of a contrary critique being qualified as populist. The paper propounds a critical analysis of populism by focusing on three of its widespread usages: as a characteristic of politicians and their organizations, as an ideological platform, and as a political marketing technique. These approaches to populism and the associated usages of the word do not provide sufficient information about the ways and conditions a populist wave could rise nor about how it could organize itself into a political movement. In all three views populism is taken as an autonomous political position whose public base remains indeterminate yet presumed self-evident. At the same time populism is not only compatible with democracy, it also has its roots in mass democracy. The secret of populism therefore does not lie in the fact that some politician, party, movement, or way of public speech is populist. As an attribute populism is secondary. The essence of populism consists in the condition, the situation in which it acquires mass currency and high legitimacy.

 

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Author: Stefan Popov

Stefan Popov holds a Ph.D. in philosophy and social science from the New School for Social Research, New York City, and a Dr. Habil. from Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. Professor of philosophy and sociology at the NBU. Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Open Society Institute in Sofia (2000-2006). He has had several one-year specializations: International criminal tribunals (Vienna, 1994), International security regimes (Washingtom, DC, 1999), Constitutional politics (Fribourg, Switzerland, 2003), Public policy concepts (Vienna, 2011-2012).

Stefan Popov has authored several books, such as Descartes and the Mathematization of the World. (Sofia: Altera, 2017; Atlantis: Disintegration of Political Bodies. Sofia: Obsidian, 2016; Obiectum Purum: Introduction to Descartes Phenomenology. (Sofia: LitVestnik, 2015; Public Process. Selected Papers. Volume I and II. Sofia: Ciela, 2015; Wittgenstein’s Analytics of the Mystical. Sofia: Altera, 2008; NATO’s Global Mission in the 21st Century. Brussels: NATO. Executive Chairman of RiskMonitor, a think tanks (since 2007). He has also written a sports book, Modern Ski Technique. Sofia: NBU Press, 2019.

Lies, Fakes and Deep Fakes. Deceptions and Scams in the Age of Trump

This article was first published in Public Seminar on 11 September 2019 It is part of the Eurozine Focal Point ‘Information: A public good’.
© Sydney Tarrow / Public Seminar / Eurozine

 

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Author: Sidney Tarrow

 

Free Expression on the Margins. The Kremlin and the Media

This article was first published in German in Osteuropa 10-12/2018 and has been provided by Eurozine.
Copyright © Maria Lipman / Osteuropa / Eurozine
This translation was supported by the Eurozine Translations Pool which is co-funded by the Creative Europe Programme of the European Union.

 

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Author: Maria Lipman

 

‘Don’t Let the Facts Spoil a Good Story!’ Russian Journalism from Gorbachev to Putin

This article was first published in Slovenian in Razpotja 28 (2017) and has been provided by Eurozine

Copyright © Ilya Yablokov / Razpotja / Eurozine

This translation was supported by the Eurozine Translations Pool which is co- funded by the Creative Europe Programme of the European Union.

 

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Author: Ilya Yablokov

 

The Power of Law or the Law of Power? Why Europe Must Lead the Way in the Governance of Technology

The article was first published in English in Eurozine and is based on a talk given

by the author on 19 September 2019 as part of the series ‘The Tipping Point Talks 2019’, organized by the ERSTE Foundation. It is part of the Eurozine Focal Point “Big Tech: The law of power?”.

Copyright © Marietje Schaake / ERSTE Foundation / Eurozine

 

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Author: Marietje Schaake